Index > 1 Introduction to EURSSEM >

1.2 Purpose and scope of EURSSEM

The Environmental Radiation Survey and Site Execution Manual (EURSSEM) has been developed to provide a consistent consensus approach and guidance to conduct all actions at radioactively contaminated and potentially radioactively contaminated sites and/or groundwater up to their release for restricted or unrestricted (re)use. This approach and guidance should be both scientifically rigorous and flexible enough to be applied for a diversity of site (surface) clean-up conditions.

The title EURSSEM includes the term “survey” because it provides information on control, planning and conducting surveys, and the term “execution” because the processes outlined in the manual allow interested persons/organizations to execute planned actions.

The EURSSEM guidance focuses on the demonstration of compliance with regulations and standards during all stages of such a project.

The EURSSEM guidance includes as well the general functional approach “what has to be done or what should be required” as detailed guidance “how it can be done or how it can be demonstrated that requirements are met”, but the guidance provided is not intended and never had the intention to be prescriptive. A consensus approach is advocated, however.

The EURSSEM guidance is primarily written from rendering a service point of view according to the best available practice.

An important step in understanding the Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Process is accomplished by understanding the scope of this guideline, the applied terminology and concepts. As the guidance set out in EURSSEM is based on important documents that have been produced by:

The same terminology has been adopted to present a consistent approach. In the case of different terms for the same object/purpose preference is given to terms defined by the IAEA.

In table 1.1 an overiview is presented of the documents of the IAEA, CIRIA SAFEGROUNDS Learning Network, MARSSIM and ITRC which are taken into account in this version of EURSSEM.

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA):
Safety Series
• The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management, IAEA Safety Series No. 111-F;
• Classification of Radioactive Waste, A Safety Guide, IAEA Safety Series No. 111-G-1.1;
Safety Standard Series
• Remediation of Areas Contaminated by Past Activities and Accidents, IAEA Safety Standards Series
. No. WS-R-3;
• Application of the Concepts of Exclusion by Past Activities and Accidents, IAEA Safety
. Standards Series No. RS-G-1.7;
• Remediation Process for Areas Contaminated by Past Activities and Accidents, IAEA Safety Standards
. No. WS-G-3.1;
• Release of Sites from Regulatory Control on Termination of Practices, IAEA Safety Standards,
. Safety Guide No. WS-G-5.1;
Technical Report Series
• Current Practices for the Management and Confinement of Uranium Mill Tailings; IAEA Technical
. Reports Series 335;
• Remediation of Sites with Dispersed Radioactive Contamination, Technical Reports Series No. 424;
• Management of Problematic Waste and Material GENERATED during the Decommissioning of
. Nuclear Facilities, Technical Reports Series No. 441;
• Remediation of Sites with Mixed Contamination of Radioactive and Other Hazardous Substances,
. Technical Reports Series No. 442;
• Applicability of Monitored Natural Attenuation at Radioactively Contaminated Sites, Technical Reports
. Series No. 445;
• Management of Long Term Radiological Liabilities: Stewardship Challenges, Technical Reports Series
. No. 450;
• Clearance Levels for Radionuclides in Solid Materials: Application of Exemption Principles. Interim
. Report for Comment. TECDOC-855;
• Application of radiation protection principles to the clean-up of contaminated areas, TECDOC-987;
• Characterization of radioactively contaminated sites for remediation purposes, TECDOC-1017;
• Technologies for Remediation of Radioactively Contaminated Sites, TECDOC-1086;
• Technical Options for the Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater, TECDOC-1088;
• Non-technical Factors Impacting on the Decision Making Processes in Environmental Remediation,
. TECDOC-1279;
• Guidelines for radioelement mapping using gamma ray spectrometry data, TECDOC-1363;
• Soil Sampling for Environmental Contaminants, TECDOC-1415, IAEA;

• Remedial treatment for contaminated land. Volume III: Site Investigation and assessment Special
. Publication 103;
• Community Stakeholder Involvement, Revision 1;
• Assessments of Health and Environmental Risks of Management Options for Contaminated Land,
. Revision 1;
• Good Practice Guidance for the Management of Contaminated Land on Nuclear and Defence Sites,
. Version 2, Second full draft.

Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM):
• United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, United States Environmental Protection Agency,
. United States Of America Department Of Energy, United States Of America Department Of Defense,
. Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM), NUREG-1575, Rev. 1,
. EPA 402-R-97-016, Rev. 1, DOE/EH-0624, Rev. 1.

Interstate Technology Regulatory Council (ITRC):
• Determining Clean-up Goals at Radioactively Contaminated Sites: Case Studies;
• Issues of Long-Term Stewardship: State Regulator’s Perspectives;
• Remediation Process Optimisation.

Table 1.1 Overview of IAEA, CIRIA SAFEGROUNDS Learning Network, MARSSIM and ITRC documents that deals with aspects of Environmental Remediation and which are taken into account by the development of EURSSEM.