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1.5 Use of the manual

Potential users of this manual are companies, government agencies and other parties that can be described as stakeholders involved in processes to remediate or restore radioactively contaminated sites for restricted or unrestricted (re)use.

The manual is intended for a technical as well as a non-technical audience. However, having knowledge of radiation health physics and understanding of statistics as well as experience with practical applications of radiation protection is recommended.

Understanding of instrumentation and methodologies and expertise in planning, approving, and implementing surveys of environmental levels of radioactive material is assumed. This manual has been written so that individuals responsible for planning, approving, and implementing radiological surveys will be able to understand and apply the guidance provided here. Certain situations and sites may require consultation with more experienced personnel.

EURSSEM provides guidance for developing a strategy, conducting radiation surveys and site investigations. EURSSEM uses the word “should” as a recommendation that ought not to be interpreted as a requirement. The reader does not need to expect that every recommendation in this manual should be taken literally and applied at every site. Rather, it is expected that the documentation will address how the guidance will be applied on a site-specific basis.

As previously stated, EURSSEM supports implementation of dose- or risk-based regulations. Guidelines are incorporated how to translate the regulatory dose limit to a corresponding concentration level. Therefore, the guidance in this manual is applicable to a broad range of regulations, including risk- or concentration-based regulations. The terms dose and dose-based regulation are used throughout the manual, but these terms are not intended to limit the use of the manual.

Note that (national) governmental agencies that can approve a demonstration of compliance may support requirements that differ from what is presented in this version of EURSSEM. It is essential, therefore, that the persons carrying out the process remain in close communication with the (proper) national and local government throughout the compliance demonstration process.
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Within scope of EURSSEM

Beyond scope of EURSSEM
Guidance EURSSEM provides technical, performance-based guidance on developing a contaminated land strategy, stakeholder involvement, conducting radiation surveys and site investigations, remediation and restoration, and reuse and stewardship.

Regulations EURSSEM does not set new regulations or non-technical issues (e.g., legal or policy) for site clean-up. Guidance in the calculation of release criteria is provided; however, applied methods and results should be approved by involved regulators.
Tool box EURSSEM can be thought of as an extensive tool box with many components – some within the text of EURSSEM, others by reference. Tool box Many topics are beyond the scope of EURSSEM, for example:
* packaging and transportation of wastes for disposal;
* decontamination and stabilization techniques for waste;
* training.

Stakeholder involvement The guidance given in EURSSEM is general and based on internationally reported experiences in literature. Procedure Suggested points of concern and approaches in EURSSEM depend on a site-specific need – there are no set of general applicable procedures to set-up an effective stakeholder-involvement.

Measurement The guidance given in EURSSEM is performance-based and directed towards acquiring site-specific goals. Procedure The approaches suggested in EURSSEM vary depending on the various site and/or groundwater data needs – there are no set of general applicable procedures for sample collection, measurement techniques, storage and disposal of waste established in EURSSEM.

Modelling The interface between environmental pathway modelling and EURSSEM is an important survey design consideration addressed in EURSSEM.

Modelling Environmental pathway modelling and ecological endpoints in modelling are beyond the scope of EURSSEM.
Soil, subsurface soil, surface or subsurface water (and buildings)

The main media of interest in EURSSEM are contaminated surface soil, subsurface soil, surface or subsurface water (and building surfaces).

Other media EURSSEM does not cover other media, including construction materials, equipment, biota, air, sewers, sediments or volumetric contamination.
Final status survey EURSSEM gives guidance on final status survey as this is the deciding factor in judging if the site meets the restricted or unrestricted release criteria. Materials or equipment EURSSEM does not recommend the use of any specific materials or equipment or methods – there is too much variability in the types of radiation contaminated sites and/or groundwater – some information will be within the text of EURSSEM, others by reference.

Radiation EURSSEM only considers and focuses on radiation-derived hazards. Chemicals EURSSEM does not deal with any hazards posed by chemical contamination – this information will be in other documents -.

Data Quality Objective process EURSSEM presents a systemised approach for designing surveys to collect data needed for making decisions such as whether or not to release a site.

Data Quality Objective process EURSSEM does not provide prescriptive or default values of Data Quality Objectives.
Data Quality Assurance EURSSEM provides a set of statistical tests for evaluating data and lists alternate tests that may be applicable at specific sites.

Data Quality Assurance EURSSEM does not prescribe a statistical test for use at all sites.
Remediation (restoration) method EURSSEM assists in determining a remediation-restoration method when sites are ready for a final status survey and provides guidance on how to determine if remediation was successful.

Remediation methods EURSSEM does not discuss selection and evaluation of remedial-restoration alternatives, legal considerations and policy decisions related to planning.
Radioactive waste EURSSEM provides some general information and guidance on management and transport. Procedure The set-up of detailed guidance and implementation on radioactive waste management and transport are beyond the scope of EURSSEM.

Post-remediation activities The presented guidance and assistance in EURSSEM is to prevent this type of activity; however, it cannot be excluded. Therefore, EURSSEM provides assistance in post-remediation activities.

Post-restoration method EURSSEM does not discuss selection and evaluation of post-remediation alternatives, legal considerations and policy decisions related to planning.
Reuse-stewardship In the case of restricted reuse, EURSSEM provides guidance in implementing short-term or long-term stewardship.

Stewardship management and strategy EURSSEM does not prescribe to implement stewardship or discuss selected stewardship management or strategy.
Archive for future referencing EURSSEM gives guidance to set-up such an archive and its content. Content of archive for future referencing

EURSSEM does not provide prescriptive or default contents of an archive for future referencing.

Table 1.2. Scope of EURSSEM