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Appendix H: Examples of report formats, checklists and files

Contents

  • H.1 Example of a “Historical Site Assessment Report Format”;
  • H.2 Example of a “Scoping Checklist”;
  • H.3 Example of a “Characterization Checklist”;
  • H.4 Example of a “Project Records File”;
  • H.5 Example of a “Remedial Action Support Survey Checklist”;
  • H.6 Example of a “Final Status Survey Checklist”;
  • H.7 Example of a “Data Interpretation Checklist”.

H.1 Example of a “Historical Site Assessment Report Format”

  1. Glossary of terms, acronyms and abbreviations
  2. Executive summary
  3. Purpose of the historical site assessment
  4. Property identification
    1. Physical characteristics
      1. Name of the site, owner/operator name, address
      2. Location -street address, city, county, state, geographic coordinates
      3. Topography minute quadrangle or equivalent
      4. Stratigraphy
    2. Environmental Setting
      1. Geology
      2. Hydrogeology
      3. Hydrology
      4. Meteorology
  5. Historical site assessment methodology
    1. Approach and rationale
    2. Boundaries of site
    3. Documents reviewed
    4. Property inspections
    5. Personal interviews
  6. History and current usage
    1. History -years of operation, type of facility, description of operations, regulatory involvement; permits & licenses, waste handling procedures
    2. Current usage -type of facility, description of operations, probable source types and sizes, description of spills or releases, waste manifests, radionuclide inventories, emergency or removal actions
    3. Adjacent land usage sensitive areas such as wetlands or preschools
  7. Findings
    1. Potential contaminants
    2. Potential contaminated areas
      1. Impacted areas – known and potential
      2. Non-impacted areas
    3. Potential contaminated media
    4. Potential problematic and hazardous materials and waste
    5. Related environmental concerns
  8. Conclusions
  9. References
  10. Appendices
    p(((. A. Conceptual model and site diagram showing classifications
    B. List of documents
    C. Photo documentation log
    Original photographs of the site and pertinent site features
    D List of actions that have never been performed and a list of radionuclides that have never been present at the site.

H.2 Example of a “Scoping Checklist”

Scoping survey design

  1. Enumerate DQOs: State the objectives of the survey; survey instrumentation capabilities should be appropriate for the specified survey objectives.
  2. Review the Historical Site Assessment for:
    1. Operational history (e.g., problems, spills, releases, or notices of violation) and available documentation (e.g., radioactive materials license).
    2. Other available resources – site personnel, former workers, residents, etc.
    3. Types and quantities of materials that were handled and where radioactive materials were stored, handled, moved, relocated, and disposed.
    4. Release and migration pathways.
    5. Areas that are potentially affected and likely to contain residual contamination. Note: Survey activities will be concentrated in these areas.
    6. Types and quantities of materials likely to remain on-site – consider radioactive decay.
  3. Select separate DCGLs for the site based on the HSA review. (It may be necessary to assume appropriate regulatory DCGLs in order to permit selection of survey methods and instrumentation for the expected contaminants and quantities.)

Conducting surveys

  1. Follow the survey design documented in the QAPP. Record deviations from the stated objectives or documented SOPs and document additional observations made when conducting the survey.
  2. Select instrumentation based on the specific DQOs of the survey. Consider detection capabilities for the expected contaminants and quantities.
  3. Determine background activity and radiation levels for the area; include direct radiation levels on building surfaces, radionuclide concentrations in media, and exposure rates.
  4. Record measurement and sample locations referenced to grid coordinates or fixed site features.
  5. For scoping surveys that are conducted as Class 3 area final status surveys, follow guidance for final status surveys.
  6. Conduct scoping survey, which involves judgment measurements and sampling based on HSA results:
    1. Perform investigatory surface scanning.
    2. Conduct limited surface activity measurements.
    3. Perform limited sample collection (smears, soil, water, vegetation, paint, building materials, subsurface materials).
    4. Maintain sample tracking.

Evaluating survey results

  1. Compare survey results with the DQOs.
  2. Identify radio-nuclides of concern.
  3. Identify impacted areas and general extent of contamination.
  4. Estimate the variability in the residual radioactivity levels for the site.
  5. Adjust DCGLs based on survey findings (the DCGLs initially selected may not be appropriate for the site).
  6. Determine the need for additional action (e.g., none, remediate, more surveys).
  7. Prepare report for regulatory agency (determine if letter report is sufficient).

H.3 Example of a “Characterization checklist”

Characterisation survey design

  1. Enumerate DQOs: State the objectives of the survey; survey instrumentation capabilities should be appropriate for the specified survey objectives.
  2. Review the Historical Site Assessment for:
    1. Operational history (e.g., problems, spills, releases, or notices of violation) and available documentation (e.g., radioactive materials license).
    2. Other available resources – site personnel, former workers, residents, etc.
    3. Types and quantities of materials that were handled and where radioactive materials were stored, handled, moved, relocated, and disposed of.
    4. Release and migration pathways.
    5. Information on t Information on the potential for residual radioactivity that may be useful during area classification for final status survey design. Note: Survey activities will be concentrated in Class 1 and Class 2 areas.
    6. Areas that are potentially affected and likely to contain residual contamination. Note: Survey activities will be concentrated in these areas.
    7. Types and quantities of materials likely to remain on-site – consider radioactive decay.

Conducting surveys

  1. Select instrumentation based on detection capabilities for the expected contaminants and quantities and a knowledge of the appropriate DCGLs.
  2. Determine background activity and radiation levels for the area; include surface activity levels on building surfaces, radionuclide concentrations in environmental media, and exposure rates.
  3. Establish a reference coordinate system. Prepare scale drawings for surface water and ground-water monitoring well locations.
  4. Perform thorough surface scans of all potentially contaminated areas, (e.g., indoor areas include expansion joints, stress cracks, penetrations into floors and walls for piping, conduit, and anchor bolts, and wall/floor interfaces); outdoor areas include radioactive material storage areas, areas downwind of stack release points, surface drainage pathways, and roadways that may have been used for transport of radioactive or contaminated materials.
  5. Perform systematic surface activity measurements.
  6. Perform systematic smear, surface and subsurface soil and media, sediment, surface water and groundwater sampling, if appropriate for the site.
  7. Perform judgment direct measurements and sampling of areas of elevated activity of residual radioactivity to provide data on upper ranges of residual contamination levels.
  8. Document survey and sampling locations.
  9. Maintain chain of custody of samples when necessary.
    Note: One category of radiological data (e.g., radionuclide concentration, direct radiation level, or surface contamination) may be sufficient to determine the extent of contamination; other measurements may not be necessary (e.g., removable surface contamination or exposure rate measurements).
    Note: Measuring and sampling techniques should be commensurate with the intended use of the data because characterization survey data may be used to supplement final status survey data.

Evaluating survey results

  1. Compare survey results with DCGLs. Differentiate surfaces/areas as exceeding DCGLs, not exceeding DCGLs, or not contaminated.
  2. Evaluate all locations of elevated direct measurements and determine the need for additional measurements/samples.
  3. Prepare site characterization survey report.

H.4 Example of a “Project Records File”

  1. Overview document
  2. Document management information
  3. Land referencing information
  4. Past, current and future land use and related licenses
  5. Surrounding land
  6. Surface and groundwater
  7. History
  8. Desk study and factual investigation information
  9. Live index of areas of potential concern
  10. Time series monitoring results
  11. Interpretations and assessments
  12. Management of contaminated land
  13. Management of removed materials

Appendixes:
Annex 1 Record of regulatory information relevant to the land
Annex 2 Record of site owner requirements/contractual information
Annex 3 Record of desk studies, investigations, characterisation and remediation activities, and final results
Annex 4 Record of removed material
Annex 5 Record of stakeholder involvement
Annex 6 Other references
Annex 7 Copies of other key documents

A fixed structure for a ‘Project Records File’ as indicated in the table above may be proposed for use across an organisation to capture the required information and to allow any gaps in information to be readily identified. For smaller or more straightforward sites not all the sections may be relevant and its use in these instances should be appropriate to the issues concerned. The file could comprise thirteen sections and seven annexes. The file may be used either as a source of information to feed into site characterisation (Sections 3 to 7), or as a repository for site characterisation acquired data and its interpretation (Sections 8 to 11).

The overall aim of Sections 8 to 11 should be to build up a comprehensive body of information including a realistic conceptual model and a robust risk-based analysis of the data. Section 9 should be a living document that keeps track of knowledge on areas of potential concern, some of which may have been identified in a desk study then closed out in subsequent investigation or remediation.

Section 10 should enable build-up of a time-series picture of the changes in land quality on sites that have a monitoring programme. The results should be used to update, confirm or challenge the interpretations and assessments in Section 11. Section 11 should contain the records that document the site’s understanding of the significance of ground contamination. Iterations of the conceptual model and other assessments and interpretations should be recorded so that developments of thinking can be recorded over time and tracked through the initial overview document.

In Section 12 further supplementary characterisation information may be included as part of the implementation and verification of the site management options. As well as providing relevant background on the site, the annexes should provide a logical and comprehensive record of the processes used to characterise and manage the site quality interest. Appendix 3 should hold all the desk study and investigation data.

In Section 13, an overview should be given of the management and the final destination of the removed materials as a technical link to possible disposal sites.

H.5 Example of a “Remedial Action Support Survey Checklist”

Survey design

  1. Enumerate DQOs: State the objectives of the survey; survey instrumentation capabilities should be able to detect residual contamination at the DCGL.
  2. Review the remediation plans.
  3. Determine applicability of monitoring surfaces/soils for the radio-nuclides of concern. Note: Remedial action support surveys may not be feasible for surfaces contaminated with very low energy beta emitters or for soils or media contaminated with pure alpha emitters.
  4. Select simple radiological parameters (e.g., surface activity) that can be used to make immediate in-field decisions on the effectiveness of the remedial action.

Conducting surveys

  1. Select instrumentation based on its detection capabilities for the expected contaminants.
  2. Perform scanning and surface activity measurements near the surface being decontaminated.
  3. Survey soil excavations and perform field evaluation of samples (e.g., gamma spectrometry of undried/non-homogenized soil) as remedial actions progress.

Evaluating survey results

  1. Compare survey results with DCGLs using survey data as a field decision tool to guide the remedial actions in a real-time mode.
  2. Document survey results.

H.6 Example of a “Final Status Survey Checklist”

Survey preparations

  1. Ensure that residual radioactivity limits have been determined for the radio-nuclides present at the site, typically performed during earlier surveys associated with the decommissioning process.
  2. Identify the radio-nuclides of concern. Determine whether the radio-nuclides of concern exist in background. This will determine whether one-sample or two-sample tests are performed to demonstrate compliance. Two-sample tests are performed when radio-nuclides are present in the natural background; one-sample tests may be performed if the radionuclide is not present in background.
  3. Segregate the site into Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 areas, based on contamination potential.
  4. Identify survey units.
  5. Select representative reference (background) areas for both indoor and outdoor survey areas. Reference areas are selected from non-impacted areas and
    1. are free of contamination from site operations,
    2. exhibit similar physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the survey area,
    3. have similar construction, but have no history of radioactive operations.
  6. Select survey instrumentation and survey techniques. Determine MDCs (select instrumentation based on the radio-nuclides present) and match between instrumentation and DCGLs – the selected instruments should be capable of detecting the contamination at 10 – 50 % of the DCGLs.
  7. Prepare area if necessary – clear and provide access to areas to be surveyed.
  8. Establish reference coordinate systems (as appropriate).

Survey design

  1. Enumerate DQOs: State objective of survey, state the null and alternative hypotheses, specify the acceptable decision error rates (Type I (α) and Type II (β)).
  2. Specify sample collection and analysis procedures.
  3. Determine numbers of data points for statistical tests, depending on whether or not the radionuclide is present in background.
    1. Specify the number of samples/measurements to be obtained based on the statistical tests.
    2. Evaluate the power of the statistical tests to determine that the number of samples is appropriate.
    3. Ensure that the sample size is sufficient for detecting areas of elevated activity.
    4. Add additional samples/measurements for QC and to allow for possible loss.
  4. Specify sampling locations.
  5. Provide information on survey instrumentation and techniques. The decision to use portable survey instrumentation or in-situ techniques, and/or a combination of both, depends on whether or not the radiation levels are elevated compared to natural background, and whether or not the residual radioactivity is present at some fraction of background levels.
  6. Specify methods of data reduction and comparison of survey units to reference areas.
  7. Provide quality control procedures and QAPP for ensuring validity of survey data:
    1. properly calibrated instrumentation,
    2. necessary replicate, reference and blank measurements,
    3. comparison of field measurement results to laboratory sample analyses.
  8. Document the survey plan (e.g., QAPP, SOPs, etc.).

Conducting surveys

  1. Perform reference (background) area measurements and sampling.
  2. Conduct survey activities:
    1. Perform surface scans of the Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 areas.
    2. Conduct surface activity measurements and sampling at previously selected sampling locations.
    3. Conduct additional direct measurements and sampling at locations based on professional judgment.
  3. Perform and document any necessary investigation activities, including survey unit reclassification, remediation, and resurvey.
  4. Document measurement and sample locations; provide information on measurement system MDC and measurement errors.
  5. Document any observations, abnormalities, and deviations from the QAPP or SOPs.

Evaluating survey results

  1. Review DQOs.
  2. Analyze samples.
  3. Perform data reduction on survey results.
  4. Verify assumptions of statistical tests.
  5. Compare survey results with regulatory DCGLs:
    1. Conduct elevated measurement comparison.
    2. Determine area-weighted average, if appropriate.
    3. Conduct WRS or Sign tests.
  6. Prepare final status survey report.
  7. Obtain an independent review of the report.

H.7 Example of a “Data Interpretation Checklist”

Convert data to standard units

  1. Structure activity in Bq/m2 (dpm/100 cm2)
  2. Solid media (soil, etc.) activity in Bq/kg (pCi/g)

Evaluate elevated measurements

  1. Identify elevated data.
  2. Compare data with derived elevated area criteria.
  3. Determine need to remediate and/or reinvestigate elevated condition.
  4. Compare data with survey unit classification criteria.
  5. Determine need to investigate and/or reclassify.

Assess survey data

  1. Review DQOs and survey design.
  2. Verify that data of adequate quantity and quality were obtained.
  3. Perform preliminary assessments (graphical methods) for unusual or suspicious trends or results – investigate further as appropriate.

Perform statistical tests

  1. Select appropriate tests for category of contaminant.
  2. Conduct tests.
  3. Compare test results against hypotheses.
  4. Confirm power level of tests.

Compare results to guidelines

  1. Determine average or median concentrations.
  2. Confirm that residual activity satisfies guidelines.

Compare results with DQOs

  1. Determine whether all DQOs are satisfied.
  2. Explain/describe deviations from design-basis DQOs.